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Short Book Reviews

Short notes 2000


DICTIONARY OF STATISTICS FOR PSYCHOLOGISTS. B.S. Everitt and T. Wykes.
LISE MEITNER AND THE DAWN OF THE NUCLEAR AGE. P. Rife (Foreword by J.A. Wheeler).
ALDO VAN EYCK. Works. V. Ligtelijn (Ed.).
IMAGINARY NUMBERS. An Anthology of Marvelous Mathematical Stories, Diversions, Poems, and Musings. W. Frucht (Ed.).
SPEAKING INTO THE AIR. A History of the Idea of Communication. J.D. Peters.
THE SCIENCES IN ENLIGHTENED EUROPE. W. Clark, J. Colinski and S. Schaffer (Eds.).
MYSTERY OF MYSTERIES. Is Evolution a Social Construction? M. Ruse.
CAPITALIZING ON INVESTMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy.
METHODOLOGY AND TACIT KNOWLEDGE: Two Experiments in Econometrics. J.R. Magnus and M.S. Morgan.
EMPIRICAL MODELING IN ECONOMICS. Specification and Evaluation. C.W.J. Granger.
TO IMPROVE HUMAN HEALTH. A History of The Institute of Medicine. E.D. Berkowitz.
MARIJUANA AND MEDICINE. Assessing the Science Base. J.E. Joy, S.J. Watson Jr. and J.A. Benson Jr. (Eds.).
THE CHANGING NATURE OF WORK. Implications for Occupational Analysis. Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance: Occupational Analysis.
MEASURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE AND ECOSYSTEM CONDITION. P.C. Schulze (Ed.).
STATISTICALLY SPEAKING. A Dictionary of Quotations. C.C. Gaither and A.E. Cavazos-Gaither.
FLOOD ESTIMATION HANDBOOK. H. Houghton-Carr, D. Reed, D. Faulkener, A. Robson and D. Reed, A. Bayliss
THE CAMBRIDGE CONCISE HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY. M. Hoskin (Ed.).
THE SUN IN THE CHURCH. Cathedrals as Solar Observatories. J.L. Heilbron.
ONE UNIVERSE. At Home in the Cosmos. N. de Grasse Tyson, C. Liu and R. Irion.
JUST SIX NUMBERS. The Deep Forces that Shape the Universe. M. Rees.
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE. Research Pathways for the Next Decade. National Research Council and National Academy of Science.
AGAINST THE TIDE. The Battle for America's Beaches. C. Dean.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE CHALLENGE OF TRANSITION. J. Schmandt, C.H. Ward and M. Hastings (Eds.).
DISASTERS AND DEMOCRACY. The Politics of Extreme Natural Events. R.H. Platt. Washington, D.C.:
THE DIGITAL DILEMMA. Intellectual Property in the Information Age. National Research Council and National Academy of Science.
THE POUND. A Biography. D. Sinclair.
SEDUCED BY SCIENCE. How American Religion Has Lost Its Way. S. Goldberg.
WITHIN REASON. Rationality and Human Behavior. D.B. Calne.
ROCKS OF AGES. Science and Religions in the Fullness of Life. S.J. Gould.
Uncle Petros and Goldbach's conjecture. A. Doxiadis.
Statistics for the 21st century. Methodologies for Applications of the Future. C.R. Rao and G.J. Székely (Eds.).
Strange Beauty. Murray Gell-Mann and the Revolution in Twentieth-Century Physics. G. Johnson.
Inventing Money. The Story of Long-Term Capital Management and the Legends behind it. N. Dunbar.
Statistics, science and Public Policy: IV. The Two Cultures? A.M. Herzberg and I. Krupka (Eds.).
Gone For Good. Tales of University Life after the Golden Age. S. Rojstaczer.
The Dons: Mentors, Eccentrics and Geniuses. N. Annan.
Parents and Schools. The 150-year Struggle for Control in American Education. W.W. Cuter.
An Elusive Science. The Troubling History of Education Research. E.C. Lageman.
The genius of science. A Portrait Gallery. A. Pais.
Carl Sagan. A Life. K. Davidson.
Stephen Smale: The Mathematician Who Broke the Dimension Barrier. S. Batterson.
Shaking The Tree. Reading from Nature in the History of Life. H. Gee (Ed.).
Five More Golden Rules. Knots, Codes, Chaos, and Other Great Theories of 20th-Century Mathematics. J.L. Casti.
Lucifer's Legacy. The Meaning of Asymmetry. F. Close.
On Tycho's Island. Tycho Brahe and his Assistants, 1570-1601. J.R. Christianson.
June 8, 2004, Venus in Transit. E. Maor.
Tides. A Scientific History. D.E. Cartwright.
Quality of Life. Assessment, Analysis and Interpretation. P.M. Fayers and D. Machin.
Cancer. The Evolutionary Legacy. M. Greaves.
Science in translation. Movements of Knowledge Through Cultures and Time. S.L. Montgomery.
THOMAS KUHN. A Philosophical History of our Time. S. Fuller.
Image makers: Advertising, Public Relations, and the Ethos of advocacy. R. Jackhal and J.M. Hirota.

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Title DICTIONARY OF STATISTICS FOR PSYCHOLOGISTS.
Author B.S. Everitt and T. Wykes.
Publisher London: Arnold, 1999, pp. 187, £40.00 Cloth; £14.00 Paper.

This volume, a dictionary of statistics, is written especially for psychology students and research psychologists. The dictionary gives over fifteen hundred definitions of commonly used statistical terms found in the psychological literature. Some entries also give mathematical details, numerical examples, a diagram and a reference to the literature.

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Title LISE MEITNER AND THE DAWN OF THE NUCLEAR AGE.
Author P. Rife (Foreword by J.A. Wheeler).
Publisher Boston: Birkhäuser, 1999, pp. xviii + 432, DM78.00/ÖSch570.00/SFr68.00.

From the book cover: "The drama surrounding the discovery of nuclear fission, which led directly to the development of the first atomic bomb by the Allies, is a true "thriller" in the history of science. The female physicist at the heart of this discovery led a fascinating life. Lise Meitner (1878–1968) was a pioneering physicist, the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in physics at the University of Vienna, a pioneer in the research of radioactive processes, and together with her nephew Otto R. Frisch, an interpreter of the process of nuclear fission in 1938. She was a colleague and friend of many of the "giants" of 20th century physics: Max Planck, her Berlin mentor; Albert Einstein; Max von Laue; and Niels Bohr, to mention only several. In 1945, her long-term partner Otto Hahn alone was awarded the Nobel Prize for work in which Meitner was directly involved before her secret escape from Nazi Germany.
"In this fascinating biography, Patricia Rife interprets both the life and times of Lise Meitner, providing a rich background of the scientific discoveries and social milieu which affected the research, events, personalities, and politics of 20th century quantum physics. Rife asks the central question of why, after a dramatic escape from Nazi Germany and priority evidence of Meitner's role in the interpretation of nuclear fission, was she not awarded the Nobel Prize as well?"

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Title ALDO VAN EYCK. Works.
Author V. Ligtelijn (Ed.).
Publisher Basel: Birkhäuser, 1999, pp. 311, SFr108.00/DM128.00/ÖSch935.00.

Aldo Van Eyck, the Dutch architect, is one of the most significant architects of the twentieth century. This volume, produced to commemorate Van Eyck's eightieth birthday in 1998, contains plans and pictures of all the buildings Van Eyck was involved with from 1944 to 1999. The ideas and design principles which underline the conception of the buildings are explained.

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Title IMAGINARY NUMBERS. An Anthology of Marvelous Mathematical Stories, Diversions, Poems, and Musings.
Author W. Frucht (Ed.).
Publisher New York: Wiley, 1999, pp. xiv + 327, £18.50.

From the book jacket: "... a marvelous roster of acclaimed writers conjure up magical happenings, fantastic visions, and brain-teasing puzzles, all based in some way on mathematical ideas."
The anthology includes excerpts from E.A. Abbott's "Flatland", D. Hofstadter's story of a relationship between Fermat's Last Theorem and J.S. Bach's "The Well-Tempered Clavier", J.A. Lindon's delightful poem "A Positive Reminder" dealing with the construction of a negative and positive cube, M. Gardner's church of the fourth dimension, and many other intriguing stories and puzzles.

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Title SPEAKING INTO THE AIR. A History of the Idea of Communication.
Author J.D. Peters.
Publisher University of Chicago Press, 1999, pp. x + 293, US$26.00/£18.50.

From the book jacket: "Speaking into the Air is an absolutely splendid book, one of the very best things I have read in recent years, not only in the field of communications but in scholarship generally. I thought I was likely to admire this work, but I was unprepared for the depth, subtlety, and discrimination of Peters's argument. He manages this complex argument in beautifully composed and readily accessible prose, and I believe the book will have a rejuvenating effect on many fields that have been casting about for a new anchor in the storm of postmodernist writing."
James W. Carey, Columbia University
"Speaking into the Air is an astonishingly rich intellectual tour de force. What I think we may have in John Durham Peters is a worthy successor to Marshall McLuhan, that is, a thinker who places the media of communication at the center of his thought and shows how they construct our world. Unlike McLuhan, Peters gives equal weight to how people conceive and construct the media. He brilliantly shows how ideologies of ideal communication distort our experience of body, mind, media, and society. I don't think any American since Kenneth Burke has written such a wide-ranging work on the media of communication. It is a marvelous piece of work."
Michael Schudson, University of California at San Diego

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Title THE SCIENCES IN ENLIGHTENED EUROPE.
Author W. Clark, J. Colinski and S. Schaffer (Eds.).
Publisher The University of Chicago Press, 1999, pp. xi + 566, US$85.00/£59.50 Cloth; US$27.50/£19.50 Paper.

From the book cover: "Radically reorienting our understanding of the Enlightenment, this book explores the complex relations between 'enlightened' values and the making of scientific knowledge. Here monsters and automata, barometers and botanical gardens, polite academies and boisterous clubs, plans for violent wars and for universal peace, are all relocated in the landscape of enlightened Europe.
"The contributors show how changing forms of discipline, machinery, and instrumentation affected the emergence of new kinds of knowledge; consider how institutions of public taste and conversation helped provide a common frame for the study of human and non-human natures; and explore the regional operations of scientific culture at the geographical fringes of Europe. Covering a wide range of scientific disciplines, both in the principal European countries and in areas peripheral to Europe, the book also includes ample illustrations and an extensive bibliography.
"Implicated in the rise of both fascism and liberal secularism, the moral and political values that shaped the Enlightenment remain controversial today. Through careful scrutiny of how these values influenced and were influenced by the concrete practices of its sciences, this book gives us an entirely new sense of the Enlightenment."

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Title MYSTERY OF MYSTERIES. Is Evolution a Social Construction?
Author M. Ruse.
Publisher Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1999, pp. viii + 296, US$27.50.

From the book jacket: "With the recent Sokal hoax—the publication of a prominent physicist's pseudo-article in a leading journal of cultural studies—the status of science moved sharply from debate to dispute. Is science objective, a disinterested reflection of reality, as Karl Popper and his followers believed? Or is it subjective, a social construction, as Thomas Kuhn and his students maintained? Into this contested terrain comes Mystery of Mysteries, an enlightening inquiry into the nature of science, using evolutionary theory as a case study. ... Ruse explicates the role of metaphor and metavalues in evolutionary thought and draws significant conclusions about the cultural impregnation of science. Identifying strengths and weaknesses on both sides of the 'science wars,' he demonstrates that a resolution of the objective and subjective debate is nonetheless possible."

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Title CAPITALIZING ON INVESTMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY.
Author Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy.
Publisher Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999, pp. ix + 118, US$38.00.

From the Preface: "This report explores how well the United States is capitalizing on its investments in science and engineering research, and how capitalization can be sustained and made more effective in the future. The study was undertaken during a period of intense debate over science and technology policy. The benefits of applying new knowledge are becoming more apparent in the economy and other areas of national life. At the same time, efforts are under way to extend this success to other pressing educational needs, such as education. Because science, engineering, and patterns of capitalization are continually changing, improving U.S. ability to capitalize requires continued study, learning, and debate."

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Title METHODOLOGY AND TACIT KNOWLEDGE: Two Experiments in Econometrics.
Author J.R. Magnus and M.S. Morgan.
Publisher Chichester, U.K.: Wiley, 1999, pp. xi + 413, £55.00.

From the first of the book: "The two experiments reported in this book are designed to help understand and assess the competing methodologies of econometrics and the tacit knowledge content of the discipline. They provide an unrivalled insight into the practice of econometrics.
"Previous accounts of methodology in econometrics have been at the abstract level. This new research is at the applied level, and the design, reporting and assessment of the two experiments illustrate how the different methodologies used in modern econometrics work in practice.
"The first experiment is a field trial experiment: participating teams, with different methodological positions, answer specific econometric questions using a given data set. The second experiment is a tacit knowledge experiment: an 'apprentice' tries to emulate the approaches of three 'master' econometricians on the same applied problem.
"The book contains a number of applied econometrics papers, all written by professional econometricians, each of which uses the same data set and tries to answer the same questions, but each uses different techniques and provides different answers. In addition, the book contains analyses and comparative assessments of these papers. The data are described in detail, and are freely available on the Internet."

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Title EMPIRICAL MODELING IN ECONOMICS. Specification and Evaluation.
Author C.W.J. Granger.
Publisher Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. xii + 99, £30.00/US$49.95 Cloth; £9.95/US$15.95 Paper.

From the back cover: "In these three essays, Professor Granger explains the process of constructing and evaluating an empirical model. Drawing on a wide range of cases and vignettes from economics, finance, politics, and environment economics, as well as from art, literature, and the entertainment industry, Professor Granger combines rigour with intuition to provide a unique and entertaining insight into one of the most important subjects in modern economics.
"Chapter 1 deals with Specification. The process of specifying a model is discussed using deforestation in the Amazon region of Brazil as an illustration. Chapter 2 considers Evaluation, and argues that insufficient evaluation is undertaken by economists, and that models should be evaluated in terms of the quality of their output. In Chapter 3, the question of how to evaluate forecasts is considered at several levels of increasing depth and using a more sophisticated, technical approach than in the earlier two chapters."

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Title TO IMPROVE HUMAN HEALTH. A History of The Institute of Medicine.
Author E.D. Berkowitz.
Publisher Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1998, pp. xiii + 294, US$40.00.

This is the first formal history of The Institute of Medicine. The volume has seven chapters: 1. Creating The Institute of Medicine; 2. The Institute of Medicine Begins Operations; 3. The Hamburg Era; 4. Fred Robbins and the Sproull Report; 5. Experiences of The Institute of Medicine; 6. The Institute of Medicine and AIDS; 7. The Institute of Medicine at Twenty-five.

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Title MARIJUANA AND MEDICINE. Assessing the Science Base.
Author J.E. Joy, S.J. Watson Jr. and J.A. Benson Jr. (Eds.).
Publisher Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999, pp. xvi + 267, US$39.95.

From the book cover: "The controversy over the medical use of marijuana is fraught with social and political concerns that obscure the scientific facts important to the debate. This book summarizes what we know about the potential medical value of marijuana—the harm it may do and the relief it may bring to patients. The book helps the reader understand not only what science has to say about medical marijuana but also the logic behind the scientific conclusions. Marijuana and Medicine addresses the science base and the therapeutic effects of marijuana use for relief of symptoms associated with conditions such as glaucoma, multiple sclerosis, and AIDS, or from the side effects of treatments such as chemotherapy. It covers marijuana's mechanism of action, acute and chronic effects on health and behavior, potential adverse effects, efficacy of different delivery systems, analysis of the data about marijuana as a gateway drug, and the prospects for developing cannabinoid drugs. The book evaluates how well marijuana meets accepted standards for medicine and considers the conclusions of other blue-ribbon panels. Full of useful facts, this volume will be important to anyone interested in informed debate about the medical use of marijuana: advocates and opponents as well as policy-makers, regulators, and health care providers."

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Title THE CHANGING NATURE OF WORK. Implications for Occupational Analysis.
Author Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance: Occupational Analysis.
Publisher Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999, pp. x + 364, US$49.95.

From the book cover: "This volume explores the increasing demographic diversity of the workforce, the fluidity of boundaries between lines of work, the interdependent choices for how work is structured—and ultimately, the need for an integrated systematic approach to understanding how work is changing. The book offers a rich array of data and highlighted examples on: Markets, technology, and many other external conditions affecting the nature of work; Research findings on American workers and how they feel about work; Downsizing and the trend toward flatter organizational hierarchies; Autonomy, complexity, and other aspects of work structure.
"The Committee reviews the evolution of occupational analysis and examines the effectiveness of the latest systems in characterizing current and projected changes in civilian and military work. The occupational structure and changing work requirements in the Army are presented as a case study."

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Title MEASURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE AND ECOSYSTEM CONDITION.
Author P.C. Schulze (Ed.).
Publisher Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999, pp. vi + 303, US$57.95.

From the book cover: "When Cleveland's Cuyahoga River caught fire in 1969, environmental measurements were not necessary to calculate the seriousness of the problem. Incidents like the Cuyahoga fire raise an important question: Can catastrophes-in-the-making be detected early enough to be prevented? For those in industry, such disasters point to the need for measures that can improve the environmental performance of processes, products, business practices, and linked industrial systems.
"In this book, experts share their insights on environmental metrics. The volume reviews current approaches, evaluates structures for business decision-making, and includes a matrix for determining the environmental performance of industrial facilities. It covers the range of environmental performance and condition metrics, from the use of materials flow data to monitor environmental performance at the national level, to the use of bioassays to measure the toxicity of industrial effluents in rivers and streams."

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Title STATISTICALLY SPEAKING. A Dictionary of Quotations.
Author C.C. Gaither and A.E. Cavazos-Gaither.
Publisher Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing, 1996, pp. xii + 420, £19.95/US$39.00.

This is a volume of quotations which are pertinent to the discipline of statistics. The authors have another dictionary called Mathematically Speaking.

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Title FLOOD ESTIMATION HANDBOOK.
Author H. Houghton-Carr, D. Reed, D. Faulkener, A. Robson and D. Reed, A. Bayliss
Publisher Wallingford, U.K.: Institute of Hydrology, 1999, £250 the set.

In 1975 the Institute of Hydrology in the U.K. issued an influential document, usually called the Flood Studies Report. The present publication from the Institute is a major new contribution replacing the earlier Report. There are five volumes entitled respectively Overview; Rainfall frequency estimation; Statistical procedures for flood frequency estimation; Restatement and application of the Flood Studies Report rainfall-runoff method; Catchment descriptors. While the specific data are from the U.K., the ideas in the Report, many of them highly statistical, will be of wide interest to those concerned with hydrological issues, either directly or for their methodological interest because of the planning and environmental consequences.

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Title THE CAMBRIDGE CONCISE HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY.
Author M. Hoskin (Ed.).
Publisher Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. xiv + 362, £45.00/US$69.95 Cloth; £16.95/US$26.95 Paper.

From the book cover: "Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences, and one which has repeatedly led to fundamental changes in our view of the world. This book covers the history of our study of the cosmos from prehistory through to a survey of modern astronomy and astrophysics, itself sure to be of interest to future historians of twentieth-century astronomy!
"It does not attempt to cover everything in depth, but deliberately concentrates on the important themes and topics. These include the Copernican revolution, which led to the challenge of ancient authorities in many areas, not just astronomy, and seventeenth- and eighteenth-century stellar astronomy, at the time subordinated to the study of the solar system, but the source of many important concepts in modern astronomy."

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Title THE SUN IN THE CHURCH. Cathedrals as Solar Observatories.
Author J.L. Heilbron.
Publisher Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1999, pp. ix + 366, US$35.00.

From the book jacket: "Through much of the Scientific Revolution, between 1650 and 1750, Catholic churches were the best solar observatories in the world. Constructed initially to solve the pressing problem of providing an unquestionable date for Easter, the instruments that made the churches' observatories also threw light on the disputed geometry of the solar system. Within sight of the altar, they subverted Church doctrine about mankind's place in the universe. Measurements made in the oldest cathedral observatory, San Petronio in Bologna, in the heart of the Papal States, supported Kepler's revolutionary discovery that neither the sun's orbit, nor the earth's, can be a circle, and thus indirectly favored ideas condemned at the trial of Galileo.
"A tale of politically canny astronomers and cardinals with a taste for mathematics, The Sun in the Church explains the unlikely accomplishments of the Church-sponsored observers. It engagingly describes Galileo's political overreaching, his subsequent trial for heresy, and his slow and steady rehabilitation in the eyes of the Catholic Church. Despite the Church's prohibition against advocating sun-centered astronomy, Italian clerics managed to teach and advance it. Heilbron describes, with dry wit, the diplomatic discretion on all sides that allowed them to do so.
"The functions of the Church observatories changed with the centuries. As they increased in number, citizens and cities set their clocks by them; at the beginning of the age of iron and steam, railroad schedules were governed by the sun's movements traced out on cathedral floors. The story of these observatory-chronometers and their visionary and eccentric builders is one of astronomy, Church history, and religious architecture; of complex measurements undertaken with limited mathematical tools but inspired determination; and above all, of the many niches, protected and financed by the Catholic Church, in which science and mathematics thrived.
"The Sun in the Church corrects long-held oversimplifications about the hostility between science and religion."

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Title ONE UNIVERSE. At Home in the Cosmos.
Author N. de Grasse Tyson, C. Liu and R. Irion.
Publisher Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press, 2000, pp. 217, US$40.00.

From the book jacket: "Almost every day we are challenged by new information from the outermost reaches of space. Using straightforward language, One Universe explores the physical principles that govern the workings of our own world so that we can appreciate how they operate in the cosmos around us. Bands of color in a sunlit crystal and the spectrum of starlight in giant telescopes, the arc of a hard-hit baseball and the orbit of the moon, traffic patterns on a freeway and the spiral arms in a galaxy full of stars — they're all tied together in grand and simple ways.
"We can understand the vast cosmos in which we live by exploring three basic concepts: motion, matter, and energy. With these as a starting point, One Universe shows how the physical principles that operate in our kitchens and backyards are actually down-to-Earth versions of cosmic processes. The book then takes us to the limits of our knowledge, asking the ultimate questions about the origins and existence of life as we know it and where the universe came from — and where it is going."

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Title JUST SIX NUMBERS. The Deep Forces that Shape the Universe.
Author M. Rees.
Publisher London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1999, pp. x + 173, £12.99.

From the book jacket: "How was it that a single 'genesis event' could create billions of galaxies, black holes, stars and planets? How did atoms assemble — here on Earth, and perhaps in other worlds — into living beings that were intricate enough to ponder their own origins and purpose? What are the fundamental laws that govern our universe? This book introduces to a general readership for the first time new discoveries about, and remarkable insight into, these fundamental questions.
"There are profound connections between stars and atoms. In this accessible and highly original book, Martin Rees demonstrates how it is that just six numbers, imprinted in the 'big bang', determine the essential features of the physical cosmos. Moreover, cosmic evolution is astonishingly sensitive to the values of these numbers. If any one of them were 'untuned', there could be no stars and no life. This realization offers a radically new perspective on the universe and our place in it, and on the nature of physical laws."

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Title GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE. Research Pathways for the Next Decade.
Author National Research Council and National Academy of Science.
Publisher Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999, pp. xvii + 595, US$89.95.

From the book jacket: "How can we understand and rise to the challenges of global environmental change? One clear answer is to understand the science of global change, not solely in terms of the processes that control changes in climate, the composition of the atmosphere, and biogeochemistry, but also in how ecosystems and human society interact with these processes and changes. Many research efforts have been launched, yet many opportunities for integration remain underexploited, and many fundamental questions remain about the links among human activities, current and future states of the global environment, and human welfare. This volume encourages a renewed commitment to understanding global change and sets a direction for research in the decade ahead. Through case studies the book explores what can be learned from the lessons of the past twenty years and what are the outstanding scientific questions, and what are the corresponding observational, monitoring and data needs. Highlights include: Research imperatives and strategies for investigators in the areas of atmospheric chemistry, climate, ecosystem studies, and human dimensions of global change; The context of climate change; Human responses to projected global change."

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Title AGAINST THE TIDE. The Battle for America's Beaches.
Author C. Dean.
Publisher New York: Columbia University Press, 1999, pp. xiv + 279, US$24.95.

From the book jacket: "With harrowing accounts of natural disasters, lucid explanations of the physics of the beach and coastal ecology, reports of unwise construction, and a clear-eyed elucidation of public policy and conservation issues, this book illustrates in rich detail the conflicting interests, short-term responses, and long-term imperatives that will shape the future of the American coast."

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Title SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE CHALLENGE OF TRANSITION.
Author J. Schmandt, C.H. Ward and M. Hastings (Eds.).
Publisher Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. xvi + 223, £50.00/US$85.00.

From the book cover: "Demographers predict that world population will double to around 12 billion people during the first half of the twenty-first century and then begin to level off. Based on this scenario, Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Transition examines what societal changes must occur over the next generation to ensure a successful transition to sustainability. A successful transition must provide for the needs of these people within the constraints of the natural environment.
"An array of prominent authors presents a broad discussion of the dimensions of sustainable development: not just economic and environmental, but also spiritual and religious, corporate and social, scientific and political. Unlike other books on the subject, this volume provides insightful policy recommendations about how business, government, and individuals must change their current values, priorities, and behaviour to meet these challenges. These types of changes ordinarily take many decades to occur, so it is important to begin making them now, before the problems are overwhelming and more costly."

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Title DISASTERS AND DEMOCRACY. The Politics of Extreme Natural Events.
Author R.H. Platt. Washington, D.C.:
Publisher Island Press, 1999, pp. xix + 320, US$35.00.

This volume addresses the changing role of governments from observer to provider of financial compensation as a response to natural disasters.

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Title THE DIGITAL DILEMMA. Intellectual Property in the Information Age.
Author National Research Council and National Academy of Science.
Publisher Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000, pp. xxi + 340, US$34.36.

From the Preface: "The revolution in information technology is changing access to information in fundamental ways. Increasing amounts of information are available in digital form; networks interconnect computers around the globe; and the World Wide Web provides a framework for access to a vast array of information, from favorite family recipes and newspaper articles to scholarly treatises and music, all available at the click of a mouse. Yet the same technologies that provide vastly enhanced access also raise difficult fundamental issues concerning intellectual property, because the technology that makes access so easy also greatly aids copying — both legal and illegal. As a result, many of the intellectual property rules and practices that evolved in the world of physical artefacts do not work well in the digital environment. The issues associated with computerization are also amplified by the rise of the Internet and broader and more pervasive networking."

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Title THE POUND. A Biography.
Author D. Sinclair.
Publisher London: Century, 2000, pp. 298, £12.99.

The Pound is a biography of the rise and decline of the world's most enduring currency. The story covers a thousand years.
From the book jacket: "In tenth century England the Angles, Saxons and Jutes needed to buy peace with the Viking invaders using something more impressive than sword blades. The solution, the famous Danegeld, meant reviving the old Roman practice of minting silver coins valued according to the weight of the precious metal they contained. Another wave of invaders, the Normans in 1066, brought with them the custom of imprinting their silver coinage with a star — in Norman French, an esterlin. The coins thus became known as little stars, starlings, or sterlings. The various weights used included the mark, the shilling, and the pound of sterlings.
"From these origins in the Dark Ages, the story of the pound is the story of Britain and her peoples — but it has also played a central role on the world's stage. Britain's currency was the first great international exchange currency, laying the foundations of the financial system that now makes world trade possible. It financed the voyages of Sir Francis Drake, opened up unexplored continents, and sent great armies across the globe."

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Title SEDUCED BY SCIENCE. How American Religion Has Lost Its Way.
Author S. Goldberg.
Publisher New York University Press, 1999, pp. ix + 220, US$27.95.

From the book jacket: "Discussing the most recent and pressing collisions between science and religion — such as the medical benefits of prayer, the human genome project, and cloning — Goldberg raises the timely question of what the appropriate role of religion might be in public life today. Tackling the legal aspects of religious debate, Goldberg suggests ways that religious leaders might confront new scientific developments in a more meaningful fashion."

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Title WITHIN REASON. Rationality and Human Behavior.
Author D.B. Calne.
Publisher New York: Pantheon Books, 1999, pp. xi + 332, US$26.00/Can.$39.00.

The author, a leading neurologist, presents a new and fascinating picture of the role of rationality in both evolution and daily consciousness.

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Title ROCKS OF AGES. Science and Religions in the Fullness of Life.
Author S.J. Gould.
Publisher New York: Ballantine, 1999, pp. viii + 241, US$18.95.

From the book cover: "Gould sheds new light on a dilemma that has plagued thinking people since the Renaissance. Instead of choosing between science and religion, Gould asks, why not opt for a golden mean that accords dignity and distinction to each realm?"

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Title Uncle Petros and Goldbach's conjecture.
Author A. Doxiadis.
Publisher London: Faber and Faber, 2000, pp. 209, £9.99. [first published in Greek]

From the back of the book: "Uncle Petros is a family joke. An ageing recluse, he lives alone in a suburb of Athens, playing the odd game of chess and tending to his garden. If you didn't know better, you'd surely think he was one of life's failures.
"But his young nephew suspects otherwise. For Uncle Petros, he soon discovers, was once a celebrated mathematician. A mathematician brilliant and foolhardy enough to stake everything on solving a problem that has defied all attempts at proof for nearly three centuries – Goldbach's Conjecture.
"Uncle Petros and Goldbach's Conjecture is an inspiring novel of intellectual adventure, of proud genius and the exhilaration of pure mathematics. It is also a story of the rivalry, antagonism and sense of impending failure which haunts those who pursue impossible goals."
From a review: "A very funny, tender, charming and, to my mind, irresistible novel." (Oliver Sacks)

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Title Statistics for the 21st century. Methodologies for Applications of the Future.
Author C.R. Rao and G.J. Székely (Eds.).
Publisher New York: Dekker, 2000, pp. ix + 483.

This volume is a collection of twenty-one papers dealing with the present state of statistical methodology in a wide variety of applications. The authors were asked "to describe the current state of statistical methodology in different areas of applications and to mention what, in their opinion, should be the future lines of research in statistics."

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Title Strange Beauty. Murray Gell-Mann and the Revolution in Twentieth-Century Physics.
Author G. Johnson.
Publisher London: Cape, 2000, pp. x + 434, £18.99.

This volume is the biography of Murray Gell-Mann (1929-) the Nobel Prize winner who discovered the quark. This biography illuminates the complexity of both the man and the science in which Gell-Mann worked.

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Title Inventing Money. The Story of Long-Term Capital Management and the Legends behind it.
Author N. Dunbar.
Publisher Chichester, U.K.: Wiley, 2000, pp. xiii + 245, £17.99.

From the book jacket: "In the story of Long-Term Capital Management the facts speak for themselves. December 1992, former Salomon Brothers' Vice-Chairman John Meriwether teams up with two Nobel laureates — Myron Scholes and Robert Merton — together with his team of huge-earning arbitrage traders to found LTCM. In both 1995 and 1996 LTCM returns net profits of over 40%. In November 1997 LTCM hands back US$2.7 billion "excess capital" to investors. In early 1998 LTCM increased its portfolio of assets to US$130 billion and commanded a derivatives portfolio with a notional value of US$1.25 trillion. In August/September 1998 the total value of assets on the world's markets declines by US$3 trillion. By September 1998 LTCM loses 90% of its value and has to be bailed out to the tune of US$3.6 billion. From September 1998 to the present day, the ripples of this collapse continue to be felt across the globe.
"But try to look behind these bold facts, and the picture becomes shrouded in mystery. The diverse nature of LTCM's trading, which only allowed insiders to know the full picture, has confused many onlookers seeking to piece together the puzzle. It has been described as the equivalent to three blind men standing by an elephant: The first one grabs the tail and thinks it's a snake, the second leans against it and thinks it's a wall and the third reaches out to the trunk and believes it to be a branch.
"In Inventing Money Nicholas Dunbar strips away the shroud of mystery and complexity to tell the complete story of this most public of financial disasters in a captivating and accessible style.
"Inventing Money is in equal measure the story of the strategy and people behind the collapse of one of the world's largest hedge funds, an explanation of how the modern world of finance functions and a walk through the historical development of this multi-billion industy."

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Title Statistics, science and Public Policy: IV. The Two Cultures?
Author A.M. Herzberg and I. Krupka (Eds.).
Publisher Kingston, Canada: Queen's University, 2000, pp. xvii + 245, Can$29.95.

Approximately forty leading scientists, politicians, senior public servants and journalists from several countries met at Herstmonceux Castle in the U.K. to consider how to promote better understanding between scientists and policy-makers by focussing on the issue of the two cultures. This volume consists of the edited version of the proceedings of the conference.

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Title Gone For Good. Tales of University Life after the Golden Age.
Author S. Rojstaczer.
Publisher Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. x + 187, £15.50.

From the book jacket: "Amid the clamorous debates on political correctness, the Western canon, and alcohol abuse on campus, many observers have failed to notice the most radical change in the American University: the Golden Age of massive government funding is gone. And, as Stuart Rojstaczer points out in this incisive look at higher education, the consequences are affecting virtually every aspect of university life."

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Title The Dons: Mentors, Eccentrics and Geniuses.
Author N. Annan.
Publisher University of Chicago Press, 1999, pp. ix + 357, US$30.00.

From the book jacket: "… it describes the great dons [university teachers] in all their glorious and eccentric garb: Who they were, what they were like, why they mattered and what their legacy is. … No other book has ever explained so precisely why the dons mattered and the importance of the role they played in shaping higher education – at a time when the nature of learning is even more the subject of dissention and uncertainty."

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Title Parents and Schools. The 150-year Struggle for Control in American Education.
Author W.W. Cuter.
Publisher University of Chicago Press, 2000, pp. xiii + 290, US$25.00/£16.00.

This volume shows how parent-teacher co-operation which is essential for the success of education might be achieved.

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Title An Elusive Science. The Troubling History of Education Research.
Author E.C. Lageman.
Publisher University of Chicago Press, 2000, pp. xvii + 302, US$25.00/£17.50.

The author explains how and why education research has a low-status reputation and describes the individuals, institutions and conflicts that have shaped the study of education.

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Title The genius of science. A Portrait Gallery.
Author A. Pais.
Publisher Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 356, £25.00.

The well-known physicist and biographer of Albert Einstein now gives short biographies of seventeen other famous scientists including: Max Born, Wolfgang Pauli, Mitchell Fergenbaum, John von Neumann

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Title Carl Sagan. A Life.
Author K. Davidson.
Publisher New York: Wiley, 1999, pp. xx + 540, £19.50.

From the book jacket: "Carl Sagan was one of the most celebrated scientists of his time — the leading visionary of the Space Age. He was also a highly controversial figure who inspired wildly opposed opinions. His enthusiasm and eloquence about the wonders of space, the marvels of the human brain, and the mysteries of life captured the imagination of millions."

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Title Stephen Smale: The Mathematician Who Broke the Dimension Barrier.
Author S. Batterson.
Publisher Providence, Rhode Island: American Mathematical Society, 2000, pp. xviii + 306, £25.00.

From the book cover: "In 1957 Stephen Smale startled the mathematical world by showing that, in a theoretical sense, it is possible to turn a sphere inside out. A few years later, from the beaches of Rio, he introduced the horseshoe map, demonstrating that simple functions could have chaotic dynamics. His next stunning mathematical accomplishment was to solve the higher dimensional Poincaré conjecture, thus demonstrating that higher dimensions are simpler than the more familiar three. In 1966 in Moscow, he was awarded the Fields Medal, the most prestigious prize in mathematics."

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Title Shaking The Tree. Reading from Nature in the History of Life.
Author H. Gee (Ed.).
Publisher University of Chicago Press, 2000, pp. vii + 411, US$78.00/£55.00 Cloth; US$27.50/£17.50 Paper.

From the book cover: "Nature has published news about the history of life ever since its first issue in 1869, in which T.H. Huxley ("Darwin's bulldog") wrote about Triassic dinosaurs. In recent years, the field has enjoyed a tremendous flowering due to new investigative techniques drawn from cladistics (a revolutionary method for charting evolutionary relationships) and molecular biology. Shaking the Tree brings together nineteen review articles written for Nature over the past decade by many of the major figures in paleontology and evolution. Each article is brief, accessible, and opinionated, providing "shoot from the hip" accounts of the latest news and debates. Topics covered include major extinction events, homeotic genes and body plans, the origin and evolution of the primates, and reconstructions of phylogenetic trees for a wide variety of groups. The editor, Henry Gee, gives new commentary and updated references."

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Title Five More Golden Rules. Knots, Codes, Chaos, and Other Great Theories of 20th-Century Mathematics.
Author J.L. Casti.
Publisher New York: Wiley, 2000, pp. iv + 268, £18.50.

From the book jacket: "How did the classic tale of Alexander the Great influence the principal problem facing knot theorists today? What effect did the exalted Kalman filter have on space travel? How did the Shannon Coding Theory make mapping human DNA possible? In this brilliantly conceived follow-up to the highly acclaimed Five Golden Rules, popular science author John Casti treats us to another exhilarating quintet of theoretical gems to answer these and other intriguing questions.
"Hailed as one of the great science writers of our time, Casti reveals the remarkable origins of some of the most monumental mathematical discoveries of the last century — and sheds light on how these revolutionary ideas have reshaped our lives. Like its critically acclaimed predecessor, Five More Golden Rules takes us on a fascinating journey to the frontiers of modern mathematics, infusing a sometimes intimidating subject with an infectious energy that brings it to thrilling life. Casti draws on such diverse sources as Paul Revere's plot to warn his fellow patriots of the advancing enemy; the celebrated British play Art; the Greek legend of Gordius and Alexander the Great, the work of nineteenth-century poet William Blake; and a make-believe treasure hunt through New York's Central Park to illustrate the power and beauty of the five astonishing theories he illuminates.
"From explaining how knot theory is contributing to the development of new drugs to revealing how astronomers can predict planetary motions with the Hopf Bifurcation Theorem and highlighting the importance of control theory to space travel, Casti offers an invigorating glimpse into the exciting world of twentieth-century mathematics and how these findings have helped unravel the secrets of the universe."

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Title Lucifer's Legacy. The Meaning of Asymmetry.
Author F. Close.
Publisher Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 259, £16.99.

From the book jacket: "[The author] explores the origins of asymmetry from life to the Universe at large, and asks whether this multitude of examples can be traced back to a single act that took place at the origin of our Universe. Inspired by a chance meeting with Lucifer in the Tuillerie gardens in Paris, the author takes the reader on a sweeping tour of asymmetry in the world around us, from the development of human embryos to the mysterious Higgs boson. His tour culminates in the research now underway in Switzerland, where scientists are preparing an experiment to recreate the Big Bang and hope to resolve the mystery of the original asymmetry. Lucifer's Legacy describes the possible outcomes of this experiment, and assesses their implications for our understanding of the universe."

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Title On Tycho's Island. Tycho Brahe and his Assistants, 1570-1601.
Author J.R. Christianson.
Publisher Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. xii + 451, £30.00/US$34.95.

From the book jacket: "Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), the premier patron-practitioner of science in sixteenth-century Europe, established a new role of scientists as administrator, active reformer, and natural philosopher. This book explores his wide range of activities, which encompass much more than his reputed role of astronomer. [The author] broadens this singular perspective by portraying him as Platonic philosopher, Paracelsian chemist, Ovidian poet, and devoted family man. From his private island in Denmark, Tycho Brahe used patronage, printing, friendship, and marriage to incorporate men and woman skilled in science, technology, and the fine arts into his program of cosmic reform. This pioneering study includes capsule biographies of over a hundred individuals, including Johannes Kepler, Willebrord Snel, William Blaeu, several bishops, and numerous technical specialists, all of whom helped shape the culture of the Scientific Revolution. Under Tycho's leadership, their teamwork achieved breakthroughs in astronomy, scientific method, and research organization that were essential to the birth of modern science."

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Title June 8, 2004, Venus in Transit.
Author E. Maor.
Publisher Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. xiii + 186, US$22.95.

From the book jacket: "In 2004, Venus will cross the sun's face for the first time since 1882. Some will not bother to step outside. Others will plan for years, reserving airline tickets to see the transit in its entirety. But even this group of astronomers and experience seekers will be attracted not by scientific purpose but by the event's beauty, rarity, and perhaps – after this book – history. For previous sky-watchers, though, transits afforded the only chance to determine the all-important astronomical unit: the mean distance between earth and sun.
"Maor tells the intriguing tale of the five Venus transits observed by humans and the fantastic efforts made to record them. This is the story of heroes and cowards, of reputations earned and squandered, told against the backdrop of phenomenal geopolitical and scientific change. With a novelist's talent for the details that keep readers reading late, Maor tells the stories of how Kepler's misguided theory led him to the laws of planetary motion; of obscure Jeremiah Horrocks, who predicted the 1639 transit only to die, at age 22, a day before he was to discuss the event with the only other human known to have seen it; of the unfortunate Le Gentil, whose decade of labor was rewarded with obscuring clouds, shipwreck, and the plundering of his estate by relatives who prematurely declared him dead; of David Rittenhouse, Father of the American Astronomy, who has overcome by the 1769 transit's onset and failed to record its beginning; and of Maximilian Hell, whose good name long suffered from the perusal of his transit notes by a color-blind critic.
"Moving beyond individual fates. Maor chronicles how governments' participation in the first international scientific effort – the observation of the 1761 transit from seventy stations, yielding a surprisingly accurate calculation of the astronomical unit using Edmund Halley's posthumous directions – intersected with the Seven Years' War, British South Seas expansion, and growing American scientific prominence. Throughout, Maor guides readers to the upcoming Venus transits in 2004 and 2012, opportunities to witness a phenomenon seen by no living person and not to be repeated until 2117."

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Title Tides. A Scientific History.
Author D.E. Cartwright.
Publisher Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. xii + 292, £45.00/US$74.95.

From the book jacket: "Throughout history, the prediction of earth's tidal cycles has been extremely important. This book provides a history of the study of the tides over two millennia, from the primitive ideas of the Ancient Greeks to the present sophisticated geophysical techniques which require advanced computers and space technology.
"Tidal physics has puzzled some of the world's greatest philosophers, scientists and mathematicians. Amongst many others, Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Kepler, Newton, Bernoulli, Euler, Laplace, Young, Whewell, Airy, Kelvin, G. Darwin and H. Lamb have all contributed to our understanding of the tides. The problem of predicting the astronomical tides of the oceans has now been, in essence, completely solved, and so it is a perfect time to reflect on how it was all done from the first vague ideas to the final results. The volume traces the development of the theory, observation and prediction of the tides, and is amply illustrated with diagrams from historical scientific papers, photographs of artefacts, and portraits of some of the subject's leading protagonists.
"The history of the tides is in part the history of a broad area of science, and the subject provides insight into the progress of science as a whole: This book will therefore appeal to all those interested in how scientific ideas develop. It will particularly interest those specialists in oceanography, hydrography, geophysics, geodesy, astronomy and navigation whose subjects involve tides."

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Title Quality of Life. Assessment, Analysis and Interpretation.
Author P.M. Fayers and D. Machin.
Publisher Chichester, U.K.: Wiley, pp. xii + 404, £60.00.

From the preface: "Measurement of quality of life has grown to become a standard endpoint in many randomised controlled trials and other clinical studies. In part, this is a consequence of the realisation that many treatments for chronic diseases frequently fail to cure, and that there may be limited benefits gained at the expense of taking toxic or unpleasant therapy. Sometimes therapeutic benefits may be outweighed by quality of life considerations. In studies of palliative therapy, quality of life may become the principal or only endpoint of consideration. In part, it is also a recognition that patients should have a say in the choice of their therapy, and that patients place greater emphasis upon non-clinical aspects of treatment than healthcare professionals did in the past. Nowadays, many patients and patient-support groups demand that they should be given full information about the consequences of their disease and its therapy, including impact upon aspects of quality of life, and that they should be allowed to express their opinions. The term quality of life has become a catch-phrase, and patients, investigators, funding bodies and ethical review committees often insist that, where appropriate, quality of life should be assessed as an endpoint for clinical trials.
"The assessment, analysis and interpretation of quality of life relies upon a variety of psychometric and statistical methods, many of which may be less familiar than the other techniques used in medical research. Our objective is to explain these techniques in a non-technical way."

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Title Cancer. The Evolutionary Legacy.
Author M. Greaves.
Publisher Oxford Univerity Press, 2000, pp. x + 276, £19.99.

This volume is the first to put cancer in an evolutionary framework. The author shows that medicine has much to gain from the insight provided by evolutionary biology.

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Title Science in translation. Movements of Knowledge Through Cultures and Time.
Author S.L. Montgomery.
Publisher University of Chicago Press, 2000, pp. xi + 325. US$28.00/£18.00.

From the book jacket: "Throughout recorded history, the exchange of scientific knowledge across cultures has shaped human civilizations. For instance, without the Greek and Roman works that were translated into Arabic and later reintroduced into Europe, the Renaissance as we know it would not have occurred. Yet until now, the enormous importance of translation to the history of science has remained largely unexamined.
"In this innovative work, [the author] explores the diverse roles that translation has played in the development of Western science from antiquity to the present. He begins by tracking the transfer of astronomical knowledge from Europe to the Near East and India via ancient Greek, its translation into Arabic, and its return through medieval Latin, showing not just the words, but also the science, changed along the way. He then presents detailed case histories of science in translation from a variety of disciplines and cultural contexts, both Western and non-Western, including an extended treatment of the origin and evolution of modern science in Japan
"In conclusion, [the author] highlights key historical and philosophical issues illuminated by the case studies, including the instability of the scientific text, what is lost and gained in the process of translating science, and the impossibility of a truly universal technical language."

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Title THOMAS KUHN. A Philosophical History of our Time.
Author S. Fuller.
Publisher University of Chicago Press, 2000, pp. xvii + 472, US$35.00/£24.50.

From the book jacket: "Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is one of the best-known and most influential books of the twentieth century. Whether they adore or revile him, critics and fans alike have tended to agree on one thing: Kuhn's ideas were revolutionary. But were they?
"Fuller argues that Kuhn actually held a profoundly conservative view of science and how one ought to study its history. Early on, Kuhn came under the influence of Harvard President James Bryant Conant (to whom Structure is dedicated), who had developed an educational program intended to help deflect Cold War unease over science's uncertain future by focusing on its illustrious past. Fuller argues that this rhetoric made its way into Structure, which Fuller sees as preserving and reinforcing the old view that science really is just a steady accumulation of truths about the world (once "paradigm Shifts") are resolved.
"Fuller suggests that Kuhn, consciously or not, shared the tendency in Western culture to conceal possible negative effects of new knowledge from the general public. Because it insists on a difference between a history of science for scientists and one suited to historians. Fuller charges that Structure created the awkward divide that has led directly to the "Science Wars" and has stilled much innovative research. In conclusion, the author offers a way forward that rejects Kuhn's fixation on paradigms in favor of a conception of science as a social movement designed to empower society's traditionally disenfranchised elements.
"Certain to be controversial, Thomas Kuhn must be read by anyone who has adopted, challenged, or otherwise engaged with The Structure of Scientific Revolutions."

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Title Image makers: Advertising, Public Relations, and the Ethos of advocacy.
Author R. Jackhal and J.M. Hirota.
Publisher University of Chicago Press, 2000, pp. xii + 333, US$25.00/£16.00.

This volume gives a comprehensive analysis of modern advocacy from commercials to government propaganda and advocacy's roots in advertising and public relations.

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